Data visualization | vis.zone

Data visualization | vis.zone

A donut chart (also spelled doughnut) is functionally identical to a pie chart, with the exception of a blank center and the ability to support multiple statistics at once. Doughnut charts provide a better data intensity ratio to standard pie charts since the blank center can be used to display additional, related data.

Donut Chart

A line chart or line graph is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points called ‘markers’ connected by straight line segments.
It is similar to a scatter plot except that the measurement points are ordered (typically by their x-axis value) and joined with straight line segments. Line Charts show how a particular data changes at equal intervals of time.
A line chart is similar to the spline graph, but the spline graph draws a curved line between the points instead of the straight lines.

Line Graph

Pictorial fraction chart is a very simple way of displaying data, but it is also widely used. Good use of it includes creativity, illustrations, typography, etc.

Pictorial fraction chart

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
See also: Horizontal bar chart

Bar Chart (vertical)

A progress bar is a graphical control element used to visualize the progression of an extended operation, such as a download, file transfer, or installation. Sometimes, the graphic is accompanied by a textual representation of the progress in a percent or quantitative format.

Progress Bar

A Choropleth Map is a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income. The choropleth map provides an easy way to visualize how a measurement varies across a geographic area or it shows the level of variability within a region.

Choropleth Map

A chart type that is using pictograms (icons, pictures, illustrations, etc.) to show fractions – e.g. one in five people eat five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day. It is a very illustrative data visualization and has become quite popular in modern infographics for simple facts.
A related visualization is the Pictorial Fraction Chart that visualize percentages.

Fraction of pictograms

A tag cloud is a visual representation for text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, to visualize free form text or to analyses speeches( e.g. election’s campaign). Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color. This format is useful for quickly perceiving the most prominent terms and for locating a term alphabetically to determine its relative prominence.

Word Cloud

A pie chart is divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are variations on the way it can be presented.

Pie Chart

A radar chart is a graphical method of displaying multivariate data in the form of a two-dimensional chart of three or more quantitative variables represented on axes starting from the same point. The relative position and angle of the axes is typically uninformative.

Radar Diagram

Angular Gauge uses a radial scale to display a specific data point using a dial over a radial scale with defined limits. Colors can be associated for the sections of the data to indicate categories for values.
Angular gauges can be used for many purposes like speed, satisfaction, volume, temperature, etc. But most common use is from car dashboard for fuel, speed, etc. also known as speedometer.

Angular Gauge

A table chart is a means of arranging data in rows and columns. The use of tables is pervasive throughout all communication, research and data analysis. Tables appear in print media, handwritten notes, computer software, architectural ornamentation, traffic signs and many other places. The precise conventions and terminology for describing tables varies depending on the context.

Table Chart

The Angular Index Gauge is quite similar to the Angular Gauge, but it doesn’t necessary display specific data/number. But this is very useful for indication of index of whether something is good/bad, high/low, above average, etc.

Solid Gauge Chart

An Area Chart or area graph are basically a line graph with the area below the lined filled with colors or textures. Like line graphs area charts are  used to represent the development of quantitative values over a time period. It can also be used to compare two or more categories and is similar to the Stacked Area Chart.
Area charts often used to show overall trends over time rather than specific values.

Area Chart

A Comparison chart contains horizontal rows and vertical columns in order to compare attributes, characteristics, numbers, values, volume, etc. It is normally visualized as a data raw chart sometimes similar to spreadsheets structure.

Comparison Chart

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
The horizontal bar chart is the same as a column chart or a vertical bar chart only the x-axis and y-axis are switched. Horizontal bar charts have some advantages compared to the vertical bar charts: Labels are easier to display and with a big dataset they tend to work better in a narrow layout such as mobile view.

Bar Chart (Horizontal)

A compound data vizulisation type, combining a scaled timeline with an area chart, a line graph or similar to show the development. It is useful to explain big changes in the development with events or causes. The events are typically visualized with labels anchored to the timeline.

Development & Causes

An number  is often used in infographics to emphasize a single data. A simple icon or an illustration mostly comes along in order to describe what it is about and to help understand the following text.

Icon + number

A Proportional Area Chart (Icon) is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales.
Similar data visualizations includes proportional area charts, displayed as circles or a squares.

Proportional Area Chart (Icon)

Icon Count

Pictorial bar chart is a visual representation of a bar chart used by designers in infographic. Icons or illustrations  are used instead of bars by either stretching or scaling the length of the object.

Pictorial bar chart

Scaled-up Number is not exactly a data visualization. But it’s very used technique in infographics and reports to highlight a single value. Often used when the number does not need a context or a comparison.

Scaled-up Number

An exploded view drawing is a diagram, picture or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts. It shows the components of an object slightly separated by distance, or suspended in surrounding space in the case of a three-dimensional exploded diagram. An object is represented as if there had been a small controlled explosion emanating from the middle of the object, causing the object’s parts to be separated an equal distance away from their original locations.

Exploded View Drawing

A Pictorial Stacked Chart is similar to the Stacked Bar Chart, but the bar is replaced by a pictogram in order to represent the percentage stacked in pictogram.

Pictorial Stacked Chart

Stacked Bar Chart is neither Multi-set Bar Chart nor simple Bar Chart. Stacked Bar Chart is multiple datasets on top of each other in order to show how the larger category is divided into the smaller categories and their relations to the total amount. 
Basically, they can be divided into two types:
1) Simple Stacked Bar Chart displays total value of the bar is all the segment values added together.
2) 100% Stack Bar Chart displays part to whole relationship in each group.

Stacked Bar Chart

A heat map is a data visualization type where the individual values contained in a matrix through variations in coloring. The term “Heat map” was originally introduced by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991 to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information even though similar visualizations have existed for over a century.
Heat maps are useful for visualizing variance across multiple variables to display patterns in correlations
Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. 
Many also incorrectly refers to heat maps as Choropleth maps – properly because of the misleading term ‘map’. But a choropleth maps include different shading or patterns within geographic boundaries to show the proportion of a variable of interest, whereas the coloration a heat map does not correspond to geographic boundaries.

Heat Map

A Proportional Area Chart (Square) is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales. You can also find a variant of this with circle shaped forms.

Proportional Area chart (square)

A Bubble Map Chart is simply a combination of a bubble chart data visualization and a map. It is used to visualize location and proportaion in a simple way.

Bubble Map Chart

A Proportional Area Chart (Circle) is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales. You can also find a variant of this with square shaped forms.

Proportional Area Chart (Circle)

A funnel chart is used to show streamlined data; each slice in the funnel represents a process that has filtered out data. The last funnel bears the value that is the final result of the entire procedure.
A funnel chart displays values as progressively decreasing proportions amounting to 100 percent in total. The size of the area is determined by the series value as a percentage of the total of all values. Any funnel consists of the higher part called head (or base) and the lower part referred to as neck.
Ideally, the funnel chart shows a process that starts at 100% and ends with a lower percentage where it is noticeable in what stages the fall out happens and at what rate. If the chart is also combined with research data, meaning quantified measurements of just how many items are lost at each step of the sales or order fulfillment process, then the funnel chart illustrates where the biggest bottlenecks are in the process.

Funnel Chart

Grouped Bar Charts are used when two or more data sets are displayed side-by-side and grouped together under categories on the same axis. Basically, it’s the most simple bar chart with two or more graphs.

Grouped Bar Chart

A linear process diagram simply displays a process with start and end point on a line. It can be visualized in many shapes, designs with various of process steps.

Linear Process Diagram

Visual presentation of data using icons, pictures, symbols, etc., in place of or in addition to common graph elements (bars, lines, points). Pictographs use relative sizes or repetitions of the same icon, picture, or symbol to show comparison.

Pictorial Unit Chart

A dot plot or dot chart is a statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. There are two common versions of the dot chart. The first is described by Leland Wilkinson as a graph that has been used in hand-drawn (pre-computer era) graphs to depict distributions. The other version is described by William Cleveland as an alternative to the bar chart, in which dots are used to depict the quantitative values (e.g. counts) associated with categorical variables.

Dot Plot

A Timeline displays a list of events in chronological order. Some timelines work on a scale, while others simply display events in sequence. The main purpose is to communicate time-related information, over time, either for analysis or to visually present a story or view of history.

Timeline

Semi Circle Donut Chart is simply a Donut Chart cut in half. The elements are still divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion like a basic pie or donut chart.

Semi Circle Donut Chart

A histogram is a chart that groups numeric data into bins, displaying the bins as segmented columns. They’re used to depict the distribution of a dataset: how often values fall into ranges. The histogram was first introduced by Karl Pearson.
To construct a histogram, the first step is to bin the range of values, and then count how many values fall into each interval. A rectangle is drawn with height proportional to the count and width equal to the bin size, so that rectangles abut each other.

Histogram

A Venn diagram or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn. They are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science.

Venn Diagram

A flowchart is a type of chart that represents a process or a workflow. It shows the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

There are a wide variety of flowchart types. Some of the most common ones are swimlane flow charts, Workflow diagrams and dataflow diagrams.

Flow Chart

Pin maps are used to display geospatial data on a map. The basic use is to pin locations and give them labels/descriptions. It can be combined with proportional icon area chart to illustrate numeric values, shades of colours to display degrees, or icons to present different groups.

Pin Map

In function it is identical to a normal bar chart. But visually it consists of a line anchored from the x axis and a dot at the end to mark the value.
The lollipop chart is often claimed to be useful compared to a normal bar chart, if you are dealing with a large number of values and when the values are all high, such as in the 80-90% range (out of 100%). Then a large set of tall columns can be visually aggressive.
The chart also has some less fortunate features:
The center of the circle at the end of the lollipop marks the value, but the location of the center is difficult to judge, making it imprecise compared to the straight edge of a bar, and half of the circle extends beyond the value that it represents, making it inaccurate.
Related chart types includes the dumbbell plot which focus on the span between two values, by highlighting the difference.

Lollipop Chart

A sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)

Sparkline

The Spline chart type is a Line graph that plots a fitted curve through each data point in a series. Line Charts show how a particular data changes at equal intervals of time.

Spline Graph

Bar chart on a map is a combination of a map with locations and a bar chart. It is useful when presenting geospatial data along values. The location could represent a city, a country or any other kind of location. Like a bar chart, the height or volume of each bar is proportional to the values it represents.

Bar Chart on a Map

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Column Sparkline is basically same as the classic sparkline, except that it uses columns/bars instead of lines.

Column Sparkline

Pyramid diagram are is used to arrange items or concepts in a way that shows hierarchical structure. This can include business management positions, products sold, business locations, etc. In any case, the topics must have a progressive order. A famous
If you want to show quantity and not just hierarchy the similar pyramid chart can be used.

Pyramid Diagram

A waffle chart shows progress towards a target or a completion percentage. There is a grid of small cells, of which coloured cells represent the data.
A chart can consist of one category or several categories. Multiple waffle charts can be put together to show a comparison between different charts.

Waffle Chart

A timeline displays a list of events in chronological order. In scaled timeline, events are placed on a scale according to actual time distance between events. The main purpose is to communicate time-related information, over time, either for analysis or to visually present a story or view of history.

Scaled Timeline

llustration Diagrams are illustrative graphics or images accompanied by notes, labels or a legend. Illustration Diagrams can explain concepts, methods or show how things work, move or change.
The style and anatomy of an Illustration Diagram may vary a lot depending on content, context and and best practices in different industries.

Illustration Diagram

Flow Maps in cartography can be defined as a mix of maps and Sankey diagrams, that show the movement of quantities from one location to another, such as the number of people travelling, the amount of goods being traded, or the number of packets in a network.
The width of the connections shows the quantity. Sometimes you flow maps with arrows to display the direction of the movement.
The most famous example of a flow map, is Minard’s map of Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812.

Flow Map

An Arc Diagram uses a one-dimensional layout of nodes with circular arcs to represent connections. Nodes are placed along a single line and arcs are used to display links between the nodes. The thickness of the lines can display frequency between the nodes.
The Arc Diagram can have a similar purpose as the Chord Diagram and the Network Visualisation. But it may not be as effective to show structure in two dimensions as it serves the purpose to easy identify correlation.

Arc Diagram

A Sunburst Diagram is used to visualize hierarchical data, depicted by concentric circles. The circle in the centre represents the root node, with the hierarchy moving outward from the center. A segment of the inner circle bears a hierarchical relationship to those segments of the outer circle which lie within the angular sweep of the parent segment.
A sunburst chart without any hierarchical data (one level of categories), looks similar to a doughnut chart. However, a sunburst chart with multiple levels of categories shows how the outer rings relate to the inner rings.

Sunburst Diagram

The Matrix Diagram shows the relationship between items. At each intersection a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It can be shaped differently depending on how many groups must be compared. Six differently shaped matrices are possible: L, T, Y, X, C, R and roof-shaped.

Matrix Diagram

Multi-level Donut charts are a set of concentric circles which is used to visualize hierarchical relationships. The size of each item represents its contribution to the inner parent category. It starts with a single item that is put as a circle in the center. This is the root node. A concentric ring is set around this central circle to see the breakup of that item. The concentric ring is then segmented to show how various child items have contributed to the parent item.

Multi-level Donut Chart

A violin plot is a method of plotting numeric data. It is a box plot with a rotated kernel density plot on each side. The violin plot is similar to box plots, except that they also show the probability density of the data at different values. Typically violin plots will include a marker for the median of the data and a box indicating the interquartile range, as in standard box plots.

Violin Plot

Comparing the distribution of data with a theoretical distribution from an ordinary histogram can be difficult because small frequencies are dominated by the larger frequencies and it is hard to perceive the pattern of differences between the histogram bars and the curve. Therefore John Tukey introduced the Hanging Rootogram in 1971 (also called Tukey’s Hanging Rootogram) in order to solve these problems. In this visualization the comparison is made easier by ‘hanging’ the observed results from the theoretical curve, so that the discrepancies are seen by comparison with the horizontal axis rather than a sloping curve. As in the rootogram, the vertical axis is scaled to the square-root of the frequencies so as to draw attention to discrepancies in the tails of the distribution.
 
It is a variation of the concept of histograms and Pareto charts by combining observed and predicted in a simple way where the line charts display that the data is continuously changing.

Hanging Rootogram

A bubble chart is a type of chart that displays three dimensions of data. Each entity with its triplet (v1, v2, v3) of associated data is plotted as a disk that expresses two of the vi values through the disk’s xy location and the third through its size. Bubble charts can facilitate the understanding of social, economical, medical, and other scientific relationships. Bubble charts can be considered a variation of the scatter plot, in which the data points are replaced with bubbles.

Bubble Chart

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, that visualises various categories into time series. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish time in time period blocks. 
A Gantt chart is often used in project management as one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time. On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and along the top is a suitable time scale. Each activity is represented by a bar; the position and length of the bar reflects the start date, duration and end date of the activity.
It is similar to the Column Range with the difference of indicating time.

Gantt Chart

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organise information. A mind map is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

Mind Map

A transit map is a topological map in the form of a schematic diagram used to illustrate the routes and stations within a public transport system—whether this be bus lines, tramways, rapid transit, commuter rail or ferry routes. The main components are color coded lines to indicate each line or service, with named icons to indicate stations or stops.

Transit Map

Stacked Area Chart is similar to the simple Area Chart, but here is uses multiple data series that start each point from the point left by the previous series. It is useful for comparing multiple variables changing over interval.

Stacked Area Chart

A Layered Proportional Area Chart is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales. You can also find a variant of this with circle shaped forms.

Nested Proportional Area Chart

In descriptive statistics, a boxplot is a convenient way of graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles. A box plot displays median, higher/lower quartiles and maximum/minimum.  Outliers may be plotted as individual points. The spacings between the different parts of the box indicate the degree of dispersion (spread) and skewness in the data, and show outliers. Box plots can be drawn either horizontally or vertically.
The violin plot is similar to boxplots, except that they also show the probability density of the data at different values.

Boxplot

A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a combination of two line segments that connect but do not intersect; these represent elevation on a topographic map.

Topographic Map

A waterfall chart helps in understanding the cumulative effect of sequentially introduced positive or negative values. The waterfall chart is also known as a flying bricks chart or Mario chart due to the apparent suspension of columns (bricks) in mid-air. Normally used for understanding how an initial value is affected by a series of intermediate positive or negative values.
Not to be confused with the likely named Waterfall Plot.

Waterfall Chart

A Cycle Diagram is simply used to show how a series of events interact repeatedly through a cycle. It normally refers to a repetitive flow of actions/steps which doesn’t really have a start and/or a proper end.

Cycle Diagram

A pyramid chart is an inverted funnel chart. Similar to a funnel chart, the pyramid chart is a single series chart which does not use an axis. It represents data as portions of a 100% (the individual segments add up to represent a whole).

Pyramid Chart

A trendline is a line that is drawn over pivot highs or under pivot lows to show the general course or tendency of something. Trendlines are a visual representation of support and resistance in any time frame.

Trendline

A step by step illustration is a series of illustration to explain a process or a sequential incident. It can be used for a wide range of purposes;  ie.  assembly guides, instructional manuals for cooking or an airplane safety manual.
The sequence of illustrations is always chronological and often numbered. The visuals can both be photos, technical drawings or more illustrative.

Step by Step Illustration

A triangle bar chart is a variation of bar chart where triangles are used instead of rectangles. Height or volume of each triangle is proportional to the values it represents. The triangle bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally.
A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.

Triangle Bar Chart

The multi-level pie chart is a special type of chart that allows you to show symmetrical/asymmetrical tree structures in a consolidated pie-like structure.
Though similar, the multilevel piechart should not be confused with the multi-level donut chart, as it contains no connected hierarchy and tree structure, but only displays independant donut rings for comparison.

Multi-level Pie Chart

Connection Map is used to display network combined with geographical data. It can be used for visualising flight connections, flow of import/export or migration, any kind of connections between different locations. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines or adding another type of visualisation (for example, bar chart or dot plot), you can add numeric values to Connection Map. It is related to a Flow Map but display no quantitative values between the connections.

Connection Map

A Pie Chart Map is simply a combination of a Pie Chart data visualization and a map. It is used to visualize location and numerical proportion in a simple way. Sometimes you will see a combination of both Pie Chart, Map and Bubble Chart. Where the size of the Pie Chart circle allows one more dimension to the visualization.

Pie Chart Map

Treemaps display hierarchical (tree-structured) data as a set of nested rectangles. Each branch of the tree is given a rectangle, which is then tiled with smaller rectangles representing sub-branches. A leaf node’s rectangle has an area proportional to a specified dimension on the data. Often the leaf nodes are colored to show a separate dimension of the data.

Treemap

Similar to a regular square treemap, but convex polygons are used instead of rectangles e.g. a new hierarchical partition scheme, also called a polygonal partition, which uses convex polygons rather than just rectangles.
Treemaps display hierarchical (tree-structured) data as a set of nested polygons. Each branch of the tree is given a polygons, which is then tiled with smaller polygons representing sub-branches.
The use of Convex Treemaps compared to regular tree maps would be when you want to show grouping and realtions instead of the strict hierachical structure of a a normal treemap.

Convex treemap

A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is commonly used in business plan arrangement and / or in companies start-up to testify the strenght of a project or a potential business.

SWOT Analysis

An organisational chart is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. The term is also used for similar diagrams, for example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a group of languages.

Organisational Chart

The Column Range displays a range of data by plotting two Y values per data point. Each Y value used is drawn as the upper, and lower bounds of a column. Sometimes range charts are referred as “floating” column charts. Some data may look very nice and are easily understood in this form, in which the column floats in the chart, spanning a region from a minimum value to a maximum value.

Column Range

A Butterfly Chart (also called Tornado Chart) is a type of bar chart where two sets of data series are displayed side by side. It gives a quick glance of the difference between two groups with same parameters. It is also possible to stack/place two bars on each side (for example, ‘developed countries’ and ‘developing countries’) to give a further division of categories.
The main use of the butterfly chart is comparison of two data sets sharing the same parameters.
It has a lot of similarity with the population pyramid, but where the population pyramid is only for population data, the butterfly chart has a broader use as a comparison chart.

Butterfly Chart

A dot density map is a map type that uses a dot or another symbol to show the presence of a feature or phenomenon.
In a dot density map, areas with many dots indicate high concentrations of values for the chosen field and fewer dots indicate lower concentrations.
Each dot on a dot-density map can either represent one single recording of a phenomenon (one-to-one) or represent a given quantity of it (one-to-many).

Dot Density Map

It can be helpful to plot multiple datasets using a 3D form of bar chart or histogram. The multiple series 3D bar charts can be used for data sets with 3 variables (x,y, z)
Often the clarity of presentation can be reduced if the presentation is too crowded.

Multiple Series 3D Bar Charts

Cartograms distort the shape of geographic regions so that the area directly encodes a data variable. A common example is to redraw every country in the world sizing it proportionally to population or GDP. Can be done by circles, squares or distorted maps by manipulating the initial map.
Primarily used to visualize data related to countries, regions or states, for example votes in elections, population or income.

Cartogram

The opposite diagram can be used to display two set of opposites in a horizontal and vertical axis using Cartesian coordinates.
The data or items are displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of two variables determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. In many ways it is similar to the scatter plot.
The values can be data driven, but it is often used for conceptual purposes by displaying opposites of an issue on a relative scale.

Opposite Diagram

Stacked ordered area chart is geared towards showing rank change. Use it instead of a stacked area chart when you want to show the change of order over time. The inner categories are connected by ribbons across the columns to help you visually see how the rank changes across the columns.
A similar visualization type is the sorted stream graph

Stacked Ordered Area Chart

A Bubble timeline is a way to display a set of events or items on a timeline with a variable displayed as the the are size of the bubbles. In essence the bubble timeline is a compound data visualization, of a scaled timeline and a proportional area chart.

Bubble Timeline

A Radial/Circular Bar Chart simply refers to a typical Bar Chart displayed on a polar coordinate system, instead of a cartesian system.It is used to show comparisons among categories by using a circular shape.

Radial Bar Chart

A Radial or Circular Histogram is used for displaying the circular data, which involves the wrapping of the usual histogram around a circle. Each bar in the histogram is centered at the middle of the group period with the length of the bar proportional to the frequency in the group.

Radial Histogram

A Sorted Stream Graph is area graph which is displaced around a central axis, resulting in a flowing, organic shape – but it is sorted instead of stacked.

Sorted Stream Graph

Fishbone Diagrams are causal diagrams that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Fishbone Diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.

Fishbone Diagram

A Roof Shaped Matrix Diagram is one of six forms of Matrix Diagram. A Matrix Diagram shows the relationship between items. At each intersection, a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It can be shaped differently depending on how many groups must be compared. The other five differently shaped matrixes are: L, T, Y, X, C and R.

Matrix Diagram (Roof Shaped)

A hyperbolic tree defines a graph drawing method inspired by hyperbolic geometry.

Displaying hierarchical data as a tree suffers from visual clutter as the number of nodes per level can grow exponentially. For a simple binary tree, the maximum number of nodes at a level n is 2n, while the number of nodes for larger trees grows much more quickly. 
Drawing the tree as a node-link diagram thus requires exponential amounts of space to be displayed.

Hyperbolic Tree

The hive plot is a rational visualization method for drawing networks. Nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes — this mapping is based on network structural properties. Edges are drawn as curved links. Simple and interpretable.
The purpose of the hive plot is to establish a new baseline for visualization of large networks — a method that is both general and tunable and useful as a starting point in visually exploring network structure.

Hive Plot

Parallel Sets are a new method for the visualization and interactive exploration of categorical data that shows data frequencies instead of the individual data points. The method is based on the axis layout of parallel coordinates, with boxes representing the categories and parallelograms between the axes showing the relations between categories.

Parallel Sets

Circle Packing is a method to visualize large amounts of hierarchically structured data. Tangent circles represent brother nodes at the same level; to visualize the hierarchy, all children of a node are packed into that node (and thus determine its size). The size of a leaf-node can represent an arbitrary property, such as file size. An advantage of this algorithm is the good overview of large data sets and the clear representation of groupings and structural relationships.

Packed Circle Chart

Parallel coordinates is a common way of visualizing high-dimensional geometry and analyzing multivariate data. This visualization is closely related to time series visualization, except that it is applied to data where the axes do not correspond to points in time, and therefore do not have a natural order. Therefore, different axis arrangements may be of interest.

Parallel Coordinates

A population pyramid, also called an age pyramid or age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. It is also used in ecology to determine the overall age distribution of a population; an indication of the reproductive capabilities and likelihood of the continuation of a species.

Population Pyramid

A Sociogram is a graphic representation of social links that a person has. It is a graph drawing that plots the structure of interpersonal relations in a group situation. A sociogram can be drawn on the basis of many different criteria: Social relations, channels of influence, lines of communication etc.

Sociogram

A scatter plot is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.

Scatter Plot

Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is a main task of exploratory data mining, and a common technique for statistical data analysis, used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics.

Cluster Analysis

An Euler Diagram is a diagrammatic means of representing sets and their relationships. They are closely related to Venn diagrams. Euler Diagrams consist of simple closed curves (usually circles) in the plane that depict sets. The sizes or shapes of the curves are not important: the significance of the diagram is in how they overlap. The spatial relationships between the regions bounded by each curve (overlap, containment or neither) corresponds to set-theoretic relationships (intersection, subset and disjointness).

Euler Diagram

A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line. The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors.

Pareto Chart

A Bullet Graph is a variation of a Bar Graph. Seemingly inspired by the traditional thermometer charts and progress bars found in many dashboards, the bullet graph serves as a replacement for dashboard gauges and meters. Bullet graphs were developed to overcome the fundamental issues of gauges and meters: they typically display too little information, require too much space, and are cluttered with useless and distracting decoration.

Bullet Graph

A Partition Layer Chart is a graphical display of clustering results, so called because it resembles a row of icicles hanging from the eaves of a house.

Partition Layer Chart Icicle Diagram

A candlestick chart is a style of bar-chart used to describe price movements of a security, derivative, or currency for a designated span of time. Each bar represents the range of price movement over a given time interval. 
It is most often used in technical analysis of equity and currency price patterns. They appear superficially similar to box plots, but are unrelated.
The dataset for a candlestick chart contains low, high, open and close values. The high and low values are visualized as the top and bottom of each stick, where the open and close values are reflected in the square inside.

Candlestick Chart

A Target Diagram displays progress towards a goal. Each layer moves closer towards the centre result. It reminds a bit like a flow chart which moves from the outside to the centre. Each layer can also be divided into subcategories.

Target Diagram

Bubble pie chart is a unique bubble chart that allows you to show/compare/relate performance across four paramenter sets instead of two. The third value determines the size of the bubble marker, the fourth by the % of pie while the other two are determined by the position on the axis.

Compound Bubble and Pie Chart

A process diagram simply displays a process with start and end point. It can be visualized in many shapes, designs with various of process steps.

Process Diagram

The Span Chart displays a range of data by plotting two Y values per data point. Each Y value used is drawn as the upper, and lower bounds of a column/bar/cylinder. Sometimes range charts are referred as “floating” column/bar charts. Some data may look very nice and are easily understood in this form, in which the column floats in the chart, spanning a region from a minimum value to a maximum value.

Span Chart

A dendrogram is a tree diagram frequently used to illustrate the arrangement of the clusters produced by hierarchical clustering. Dendrograms are often used in computational biology to illustrate the clustering of genes or samples, sometimes on top of heatmaps.

Dendrogram

The line chart’s fraternal twin. Line charts display three or more points in time while slope charts display exactly two points in time.
Defined by Edward Tufte in his 1983 book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, this type of chart is useful for seeing (referred to the first example below):

the hierarchy of the countries in both 1970 and 1979 [the order of the countries]
the specific numbers associated with each country in each of those years [the data value next to their names]
how each country’s numbers changed over time [each country’s slope]
how each country’s rate of change compares to the other countries’ rates of change [the slopes compared with one another]
any notable deviations in the general trend (notice Britain in the above example) [aberrant slopes]

Slope Chart

A Proportional Area Chart (Half Circle) is a variation of Proportional Area Chart (Circle), where one measure is represented as a circle. Representing two data sets in one circle (half circle each), this visualisation is useful for comparing two data sets (I,II in the input type) within one category and as well between different categories (A,B,C in the input type). Two data sets are often two different years or two contrary concepts (A/A’, male/female, etc.) It is also possible to use it for only one category (one circle).

Proportional Area Chart (Half Circle)

A fan chart,  is a chart representing family relationships in a tree structure. It features a half circle chart with concentric rings: the person of interest is the inner circle, the second circle is divided in two (each side is one parent), the third circle is divided in four, and so forth. Fan charts depict paternal and maternal ancestors.

Fan Chart (Geneaology)

A curved bar chart is a variation of bar chart where curved areas are used instead of rectangles. Height of each curved area is proportional to the values it represents. The curved areas can be plotted vertically or horizontally. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Curved bar charts are often seen in modern infographics, but are criticized for being confusing and inaccurate compared to a normal bar chart, as the curved area actually only has one dimension, which is the height.

Curved Bar Chart

Sankey diagrams are a specific type of flow diagram, in which the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity. They are typically used to visualize energy or material or cost transfers between processes. They can also visualize the energy accounts or material flow accounts on a community level. Sankey diagrams put a visual emphasis on the major transfers or flows within a system. They are helpful in locating dominant contributions to an overall flow.

Sankey Diagram

The Polar Area chart is similar to a usual pie chart, except sectors are equal angles and differ rather in how far each sector extends from the center of the circle. The polar area diagram is used to plot cyclic phenomena (e.g., count of deaths by month).

Polar Area Chart

A streamgraph, or stream graph, is a type of stacked area graph which is displaced around a central axis, resulting in a flowing, organic shape. Streamgraphs were developed by Lee Byron.

Stream Graph

A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions at which thermodynamically distinct phases can occur at equilibrium. Common components of a phase diagram are lines of equilibrium or phase boundaries, which refer to lines that mark conditions under which multiple phases can coexist at equilibrium. Phase transitions occur along lines of equilibrium.

Phase Diagram

A Tally Chart can both be referred to as a recording and graphically tool for showing the frequency of the data by using the tally mark numeral system.

Tally Chart

Renko charts are excellent in projecting support and resistance levels. Bricks are drawn equal in size for a known value.A brick is drawn in the direction of the prior move but only if prices move by a minimum amount.If prices change by a predetermined amount or more, a new brick is drawn.If prices change by less than a predetermined amount, the new price is ignored.

Renko chart

A Mekko chart (also called marimekko chart) is a two-dimensional stacked chart. In addition to the varying segment heights of a regular stacked chart, a Mekko chart also has varying column widths. Column widths are scaled such that the total width matches the desired chart width.

Marimekko Chart

A spiral heat map is a specific type of heat map designed for continuous comparable cycles like years or days. The spiral design makes it possible to compare the cycles, but keeping the continuous timeline along the spiral.

Spiral Heat Map

Nested circles allow to represent hierarchies and compare values. This visualization is particularly effective to show the proportion between elements through their areas and their position inside a hierarchical structure.

Clustered Force Layout

Network Visualisation (also called Network Graph) is often used to visualise complex relationships between a huge amount of elements. A network visualisation displays undirected and directed graph structures. This type of visualization illuminates relationships between entities. Entities are displayed as round nodes and lines show the relationships between them. The vivid display of network nodes can highlight non-trivial data discrepancies that may be otherwise be overlooked.

Network Visualisation

Dumbbell dot plots — dot plots with two or more series of data — are an alternative to the clustered bar chart or slope chart.
A dumbbell dot plot can be used to visualize two or three different points in time, or to triangulate different viewpoints (e.g., one dot for Republicans and another dot for Democrats, or one dot for principals and another dot for teachers).

Dumbbell Plot

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Win-loss Sparkline only shows whether each value is positive or negative, whereas a Sparkline shows how high or low each value is.

Win-loss Sparkline

Layered area chart is basically multiple area charts layered by either making use of transparency or perspective. It can be used instead of a line graph with multiple graphs to compare development or trend over time.
The visualization may cause some issues in readability when overlapping.

Layered Area Chart

A radial heat map is a variation of heat map, where the table is aligned radially. A heat map is a graphical representation of data where the individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors. Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. The term “Heatmap” was originally coined and trademarked by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991, to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information.

Circular Heat Map

A stepped line graph (also called step chart) is a chart similar to a line graph, but with the line forming a series of steps between data points. A stepped line chart can be useful when you want to show the changes that occur at irregular intervals. For example, price rise in milk products, petrol, tax rate, interest rates, etc.

Stepped Line Graph

Alluvial diagrams are a type of flow diagram originally developed to represent changes in network structure over time. In allusion to both their visual appearance and their emphasis on flow, alluvial diagrams are named after alluvial fans that are naturally formed by the soil deposited from streaming water.
Variables are assigned to vertical axes that are parallel. Values are represented with blocks on each axis. The height of a block represents the size of the cluster and the height of a stream field represents the size of the components contained in both blocks connected by the stream field.
Alluvial diagram is a variant of the Parallel Sets but for categorical variables and often to display trends over time and phases.

Alluvial Diagram

Polar chart displays multivariate data in the form of a two-dimensional chart of more than three variables represented on axes starting from the same point.

Polar Chart

A swimlane flow chart is a type of flowchart. It documents the steps or activities across boarder and show which step and activity belongs to whom throughout processes; that’s why it’s also called a cross-functional-diagram or a cross-channel-diagram. What a swimlane flow chart makes special and unique is that the elements within the flowchart are placed and match together in lanes, and you can plan, coordinate when and how a channel is required. These lanes can help identify and visualize stages, departments, or any other set of separated categories. And furthermore it work out who is in charge, who (employees, responsible people, stakeholders and areas) is responsible, who has to deliver or what can we do in which step or by which communication channel and the instant and situations in the process at which they are and how they are involved.

Swimlane Flow Chart

Taylor diagrams (Taylor, 2001) provide a way of graphically summarizing how closely a pattern (or a set of patterns) matches observations. The similarity between two patterns is quantified in terms of their correlation, their centered root-mean-square difference and the amplitude of their variations (represented by their standard deviations). These diagrams are especially useful in evaluating multiple aspects of complex models or in gauging the relative skill of many different models (e.g., IPCC, 2001).

Taylor diagram

Radial Area Chart is a variation of Area Chart. An area chart displays graphically quantitive data. It is based on the line chart. The area between axis and line are commonly emphasized with colors, textures and hatchings. Whereas area charts are used to represent cumulated totals using numbers or percentages over time, Radial Area Chart can be also used to display categories instead.

Radial Area Chart

Bumps charts are designed for exploring changes in rank over time.

Bump Chart

Y-Matrix is one of six forms of Matrix Diagram. A Matrix Diagram shows the relationship between items. At each intersection a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It can be shaped differently depending on how many groups must be compared. The other five differently shaped matrices are: L, T, X, C, R and roof-shaped.

Matrix Diagram (Y-Shaped)

A three-dimensional scatter plot is like a scatter plot, but with g three variables.Provided that x, y, and z or f(x, y) are real numbers, the graph can be represented as dots in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. It is typically drawn on a two-dimensional page or screen using perspective methods (isometric or perspective),  so that one of the dimensions appears to be coming out of the page.

3D Scatter Plot

A Non-ribbon Chord Diagram is a stripped-down version of a Chord Diagram, with only the connection lines showing. This provides more emphasis on the connections within the data. A chord diagram is a graphical method of displaying the inter-relationships between data in a matrix. The data is arranged radially around a circle with the relationships between the points.

Non-ribbon Chord Diagram

A chord diagram is a graphical method of displaying the inter-relationships between data in a matrix. The data is arranged radially around a circle with the relationships between the points typically drawn as arcs connecting the data together.

Chord Diagram

Hexagonal Binning is another way to manage the problem of having to many points that start to overlap. Hexagonal binning plots density, rather than points. Points are binned into gridded hexagons and distribution (the number of points per hexagon) is displayed using either the color or the area of the hexagons.This technique was first described in 1987 (D.B.Carr et al. Scatterplot Matrix Techniques for large N, Journal of the American Statistical Association, No.389 pp 424-436).
There are many reasons for using hexagons instead of squares for binning a 2D surface as a plane. The most evident is that hexagons are more similar to circle than square. This translates in more efficient data aggregation around the bin center. This can be seen by looking at some particular properties of hexagons and, especially, of the hexagonal tessellation.

Hexagonal Binning

Radial Line Graph is a part of radial graphs that takes data and render it as collection of data points wrapped around a circle. It is also mapping a list of categories from the minimum to the maximum of the extent of the chart. Radial Line Graph is rendered using a collection of straight lines connecting data points.

Radial Line Graph

Isoline maps show a range of quantity. They show data as a third dimension on a map, making them good for mapping surface elevations or for weather data. Radar maps, temperature maps and rainfall maps are all isoline maps.

Isoline Map

A Contour Plot is a graphic representation of the relationships among three numeric variables in two dimensions. Two variables are for X and Y axes, and a third variable Z is for contour levels. The contour levels are plotted as curves; the area between curves can be color coded to indicate interpolated values.
The contour plot is an alternative to a 3-D surface plot.

Contour Plot

In addition to the Ternary Plot, you will also find the Ternary Contour Plot. These plots can be used for example to chart the response of an independent variable to changes in a mixture of three components.

Ternary Contour Plot

A bagplot is a method in robust statistics for visualizing two-dimensional statistical data. The bagplot allows one to visualize the location, spread, skewness, and outliers of the data set. The bagplot consists of three nested polygons, called the “bag”, the “fence”, and the “loop”. The bagplot is sometimes defined as the multidimensional (bivariate) version of the box plot.

Bagplot

A ternary plot is a barycentric plot on three variables which sum to a constant. It graphically depicts the ratios of the three variables as positions in an equilateral triangle. It is used in physical chemistry, petrology, mineralogy, metallurgy, and other physical sciences to show the compositions of systems composed of three species.

Ternary Plot

A range area chart is a variation of an area chart that lets you plot bands of data, such as Bollinger bands and weather patterns. Each point in the chart is specified by two y values.

Range Area Chart

A fan chart is a chart that joins a line graph for observed past data, and a range area chart for future predictions.
Predictions are shown as ranges for possible values of future data together with a line showing a central estimate or most likely value for the future outcomes. As predictions become increasingly uncertain the further into the future one goes, these forecast ranges spread out, creating distinctive wedge or “fan” shapes, hence the term. Alternative forms of the chart can also include uncertainty for past data, such as preliminary data that is subject to revision.
Read more about fan charts here

Fan Chart (Time Series)

A Waterfall Plot is a three-dimensional plot in which multiple curves of data, typically spectra, are displayed simultaneously. Typically the curves are staggered both across the screen and vertically, with ‘nearer’ curves masking the ones behind. The result is a series of “mountain” shapes that appear to be side by side. The waterfall plot is often used to show how two-dimensional information changes over time or some other variable such as rpm.
Not to be confused with the similarly named Waterfall Chart.

Waterfall Plot

A three-dimensional Stream Graph is the graph of a function f(x, y) of two variables, or the graph of a relationship g(x, y, z) among three variables.Provided that x, y, and z or f(x, y) are real numbers, the graph can be represented as a planar or curved surface in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. A three-dimensional graph is typically drawn on a two-dimensional page or screen using perspective methods, so that one of the dimensions appears to be coming out of the page.

Three-dimensional Stream Graph

Kagi charts look similar to swing charts and do not have a time axis. A Kagi chart is created with a series of vertical lines connected by short horizontal lines. The Kagi chart is a chart used for tracking price movements and to make decisions on purchasing stock. It differs from traditional stock charts, such as the Candlestick chart by being mostly independent of time. This feature aids in producing a chart that reduces random noise.

Kagi Chart

The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged. The chemical bonding within the molecule is also shown, either explicitly or implicitly. Unlike chemical formulas, which have a limited number of symbols and are capable of only limited descriptive power, structural formulas provide a complete geometric representation of the molecular structure

Molecule Diagram

Route Map is used to displace a series of geographical data with a start point and an end point. It is useful to show directions from start point to destination or to visualise traces of a run or a trip. It can be placed on an actual map or used solely. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines, you can add categories to Route Map. It is also possible to combine with time, icons or other values to the points.

Route Map

Radial Convergences are used to visualize relationships between entities. Entities are displayed as round nodes and lines show the relationships between them. It is similar to a network visualization but it is arranged in strict circular layout.

Radial Convergences

The spiral histogram also called a condegram is a histogram , but with a timeline along a spiral shape. The spiral design makes it possible to compare cycles, but keeping the continuous timeline along the spiral.

Spiral Histogram