Data visualization | vis.zone

Graph Function / Correlation

An exploded view drawing is a diagram, picture or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts. It shows the components of an object slightly separated by distance, or suspended in surrounding space in the case of a three-dimensional exploded diagram. An object is represented as if there had been a small controlled explosion emanating from the middle of the object, causing the object’s parts to be separated an equal distance away from their original locations.

Exploded View Drawing

A heat map is a data visualization type where the individual values contained in a matrix through variations in coloring. The term “Heat map” was originally introduced by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991 to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information even though similar visualizations have existed for over a century.
Heat maps are useful for visualizing variance across multiple variables to display patterns in correlations
Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. 
Many also incorrectly refers to heat maps as Choropleth maps – properly because of the misleading term ‘map’. But a choropleth maps include different shading or patterns within geographic boundaries to show the proportion of a variable of interest, whereas the coloration a heat map does not correspond to geographic boundaries.

Heat Map

A Venn diagram or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn. They are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science.

Venn Diagram

A flowchart is a type of chart that represents a process or a workflow. It shows the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

There are a wide variety of flowchart types. Some of the most common ones are swimlane flow charts, Workflow diagrams and dataflow diagrams.

Flow Chart

Flow Maps in cartography can be defined as a mix of maps and Sankey diagrams, that show the movement of quantities from one location to another, such as the number of people travelling, the amount of goods being traded, or the number of packets in a network.
The width of the connections shows the quantity. Sometimes you flow maps with arrows to display the direction of the movement.
The most famous example of a flow map, is Minard’s map of Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812.

Flow Map

An Arc Diagram uses a one-dimensional layout of nodes with circular arcs to represent connections. Nodes are placed along a single line and arcs are used to display links between the nodes. The thickness of the lines can display frequency between the nodes.
The Arc Diagram can have a similar purpose as the Chord Diagram and the Network Visualisation. But it may not be as effective to show structure in two dimensions as it serves the purpose to easy identify correlation.

Arc Diagram

Multi-level Donut charts are a set of concentric circles which is used to visualize hierarchical relationships. The size of each item represents its contribution to the inner parent category. It starts with a single item that is put as a circle in the center. This is the root node. A concentric ring is set around this central circle to see the breakup of that item. The concentric ring is then segmented to show how various child items have contributed to the parent item.

Multi-level Donut Chart

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organise information. A mind map is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

Mind Map

A trendline is a line that is drawn over pivot highs or under pivot lows to show the general course or tendency of something. Trendlines are a visual representation of support and resistance in any time frame.

Trendline

The multi-level pie chart is a special type of chart that allows you to show symmetrical/asymmetrical tree structures in a consolidated pie-like structure.
Though similar, the multilevel piechart should not be confused with the multi-level donut chart, as it contains no connected hierarchy and tree structure, but only displays independant donut rings for comparison.

Multi-level Pie Chart

Connection Map is used to display network combined with geographical data. It can be used for visualising flight connections, flow of import/export or migration, any kind of connections between different locations. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines or adding another type of visualisation (for example, bar chart or dot plot), you can add numeric values to Connection Map. It is related to a Flow Map but display no quantitative values between the connections.

Connection Map

A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is commonly used in business plan arrangement and / or in companies start-up to testify the strenght of a project or a potential business.

SWOT Analysis

Fishbone Diagrams are causal diagrams that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Fishbone Diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.

Fishbone Diagram

A hyperbolic tree defines a graph drawing method inspired by hyperbolic geometry.

Displaying hierarchical data as a tree suffers from visual clutter as the number of nodes per level can grow exponentially. For a simple binary tree, the maximum number of nodes at a level n is 2n, while the number of nodes for larger trees grows much more quickly. 
Drawing the tree as a node-link diagram thus requires exponential amounts of space to be displayed.

Hyperbolic Tree

The hive plot is a rational visualization method for drawing networks. Nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes — this mapping is based on network structural properties. Edges are drawn as curved links. Simple and interpretable.
The purpose of the hive plot is to establish a new baseline for visualization of large networks — a method that is both general and tunable and useful as a starting point in visually exploring network structure.

Hive Plot

Parallel Sets are a new method for the visualization and interactive exploration of categorical data that shows data frequencies instead of the individual data points. The method is based on the axis layout of parallel coordinates, with boxes representing the categories and parallelograms between the axes showing the relations between categories.

Parallel Sets

A Sociogram is a graphic representation of social links that a person has. It is a graph drawing that plots the structure of interpersonal relations in a group situation. A sociogram can be drawn on the basis of many different criteria: Social relations, channels of influence, lines of communication etc.

Sociogram

A scatter plot is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.

Scatter Plot

An Euler Diagram is a diagrammatic means of representing sets and their relationships. They are closely related to Venn diagrams. Euler Diagrams consist of simple closed curves (usually circles) in the plane that depict sets. The sizes or shapes of the curves are not important: the significance of the diagram is in how they overlap. The spatial relationships between the regions bounded by each curve (overlap, containment or neither) corresponds to set-theoretic relationships (intersection, subset and disjointness).

Euler Diagram

A Partition Layer Chart is a graphical display of clustering results, so called because it resembles a row of icicles hanging from the eaves of a house.

Partition Layer Chart Icicle Diagram

A dendrogram is a tree diagram frequently used to illustrate the arrangement of the clusters produced by hierarchical clustering. Dendrograms are often used in computational biology to illustrate the clustering of genes or samples, sometimes on top of heatmaps.

Dendrogram

A fan chart,  is a chart representing family relationships in a tree structure. It features a half circle chart with concentric rings: the person of interest is the inner circle, the second circle is divided in two (each side is one parent), the third circle is divided in four, and so forth. Fan charts depict paternal and maternal ancestors.

Fan Chart (Geneaology)

Sankey diagrams are a specific type of flow diagram, in which the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity. They are typically used to visualize energy or material or cost transfers between processes. They can also visualize the energy accounts or material flow accounts on a community level. Sankey diagrams put a visual emphasis on the major transfers or flows within a system. They are helpful in locating dominant contributions to an overall flow.

Sankey Diagram

A spiral heat map is a specific type of heat map designed for continuous comparable cycles like years or days. The spiral design makes it possible to compare the cycles, but keeping the continuous timeline along the spiral.

Spiral Heat Map

Network Visualisation (also called Network Graph) is often used to visualise complex relationships between a huge amount of elements. A network visualisation displays undirected and directed graph structures. This type of visualization illuminates relationships between entities. Entities are displayed as round nodes and lines show the relationships between them. The vivid display of network nodes can highlight non-trivial data discrepancies that may be otherwise be overlooked.

Network Visualisation

Dumbbell dot plots — dot plots with two or more series of data — are an alternative to the clustered bar chart or slope chart.
A dumbbell dot plot can be used to visualize two or three different points in time, or to triangulate different viewpoints (e.g., one dot for Republicans and another dot for Democrats, or one dot for principals and another dot for teachers).

Dumbbell Plot

A radial heat map is a variation of heat map, where the table is aligned radially. A heat map is a graphical representation of data where the individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors. Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. The term “Heatmap” was originally coined and trademarked by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991, to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information.

Circular Heat Map

Alluvial diagrams are a type of flow diagram originally developed to represent changes in network structure over time. In allusion to both their visual appearance and their emphasis on flow, alluvial diagrams are named after alluvial fans that are naturally formed by the soil deposited from streaming water.
Variables are assigned to vertical axes that are parallel. Values are represented with blocks on each axis. The height of a block represents the size of the cluster and the height of a stream field represents the size of the components contained in both blocks connected by the stream field.
Alluvial diagram is a variant of the Parallel Sets but for categorical variables and often to display trends over time and phases.

Alluvial Diagram

Taylor diagrams (Taylor, 2001) provide a way of graphically summarizing how closely a pattern (or a set of patterns) matches observations. The similarity between two patterns is quantified in terms of their correlation, their centered root-mean-square difference and the amplitude of their variations (represented by their standard deviations). These diagrams are especially useful in evaluating multiple aspects of complex models or in gauging the relative skill of many different models (e.g., IPCC, 2001).

Taylor diagram

A three-dimensional scatter plot is like a scatter plot, but with g three variables.Provided that x, y, and z or f(x, y) are real numbers, the graph can be represented as dots in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. It is typically drawn on a two-dimensional page or screen using perspective methods (isometric or perspective),  so that one of the dimensions appears to be coming out of the page.

3D Scatter Plot

A chord diagram is a graphical method of displaying the inter-relationships between data in a matrix. The data is arranged radially around a circle with the relationships between the points typically drawn as arcs connecting the data together.

Chord Diagram

Hexagonal Binning is another way to manage the problem of having to many points that start to overlap. Hexagonal binning plots density, rather than points. Points are binned into gridded hexagons and distribution (the number of points per hexagon) is displayed using either the color or the area of the hexagons.This technique was first described in 1987 (D.B.Carr et al. Scatterplot Matrix Techniques for large N, Journal of the American Statistical Association, No.389 pp 424-436).
There are many reasons for using hexagons instead of squares for binning a 2D surface as a plane. The most evident is that hexagons are more similar to circle than square. This translates in more efficient data aggregation around the bin center. This can be seen by looking at some particular properties of hexagons and, especially, of the hexagonal tessellation.

Hexagonal Binning

A bagplot is a method in robust statistics for visualizing two-dimensional statistical data. The bagplot allows one to visualize the location, spread, skewness, and outliers of the data set. The bagplot consists of three nested polygons, called the “bag”, the “fence”, and the “loop”. The bagplot is sometimes defined as the multidimensional (bivariate) version of the box plot.

Bagplot

A ternary plot is a barycentric plot on three variables which sum to a constant. It graphically depicts the ratios of the three variables as positions in an equilateral triangle. It is used in physical chemistry, petrology, mineralogy, metallurgy, and other physical sciences to show the compositions of systems composed of three species.

Ternary Plot

A three-dimensional Stream Graph is the graph of a function f(x, y) of two variables, or the graph of a relationship g(x, y, z) among three variables.Provided that x, y, and z or f(x, y) are real numbers, the graph can be represented as a planar or curved surface in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. A three-dimensional graph is typically drawn on a two-dimensional page or screen using perspective methods, so that one of the dimensions appears to be coming out of the page.

Three-dimensional Stream Graph

Kagi charts look similar to swing charts and do not have a time axis. A Kagi chart is created with a series of vertical lines connected by short horizontal lines. The Kagi chart is a chart used for tracking price movements and to make decisions on purchasing stock. It differs from traditional stock charts, such as the Candlestick chart by being mostly independent of time. This feature aids in producing a chart that reduces random noise.

Kagi Chart

Radial Convergences are used to visualize relationships between entities. Entities are displayed as round nodes and lines show the relationships between them. It is similar to a network visualization but it is arranged in strict circular layout.

Radial Convergences