Data visualization |

Graph Function / Geographical data

A Choropleth Map is a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income. The choropleth map provides an easy way to visualize how a measurement varies across a geographic area or it shows the level of variability within a region.

Choropleth Map

Pin maps are used to display geospatial data on a map. The basic use is to pin locations and give them labels/descriptions. It can be combined with proportional icon area chart to illustrate numeric values, shades of colours to display degrees, or icons to present different groups.

Pin Map

Bar chart on a map is a combination of a map with locations and a bar chart. It is useful when presenting geospatial data along values. The location could represent a city, a country or any other kind of location. Like a bar chart, the height or volume of each bar is proportional to the values it represents.

Bar Chart on a Map

Flow Maps in cartography can be defined as a mix of maps and Sankey diagrams, that show the movement of quantities from one location to another, such as the number of people travelling, the amount of goods being traded, or the number of packets in a network.
The width of the connections shows the quantity. Sometimes you flow maps with arrows to display the direction of the movement.
The most famous example of a flow map, is Minard’s map of Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812.

Flow Map

Connection Map is used to display network combined with geographical data. It can be used for visualising flight connections, flow of import/export or migration, any kind of connections between different locations. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines or adding another type of visualisation (for example, bar chart or dot plot), you can add numeric values to Connection Map. It is related to a Flow Map but display no quantitative values between the connections.

Connection Map

Cartograms distort the shape of geographic regions so that the area directly encodes a data variable. A common example is to redraw every country in the world sizing it proportionally to population or GDP. Can be done by circles, squares or distorted maps by manipulating the initial map.
Primarily used to visualize data related to countries, regions or states, for example votes in elections, population or income.


Route Map is used to displace a series of geographical data with a start point and an end point. It is useful to show directions from start point to destination or to visualise traces of a run or a trip. It can be placed on an actual map or used solely. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines, you can add categories to Route Map. It is also possible to combine with time, icons or other values to the points.

Route Map