Data visualization | vis.zone

Graph Function / Trend over time

A line chart or line graph is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points called ‘markers’ connected by straight line segments.
It is similar to a scatter plot except that the measurement points are ordered (typically by their x-axis value) and joined with straight line segments. Line Charts show how a particular data changes at equal intervals of time.
A line chart is similar to the spline graph, but the spline graph draws a curved line between the points instead of the straight lines.

Line Graph

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
See also: Horizontal bar chart

Bar Chart (vertical)

An Area Chart or area graph are basically a line graph with the area below the lined filled with colors or textures. Like line graphs area charts are  used to represent the development of quantitative values over a time period. It can also be used to compare two or more categories and is similar to the Stacked Area Chart.
Area charts often used to show overall trends over time rather than specific values.

Area Chart

A compound data vizulisation type, combining a scaled timeline with an area chart, a line graph or similar to show the development. It is useful to explain big changes in the development with events or causes. The events are typically visualized with labels anchored to the timeline.

Development & Causes

A heat map is a data visualization type where the individual values contained in a matrix through variations in coloring. The term “Heat map” was originally introduced by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991 to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information even though similar visualizations have existed for over a century.
Heat maps are useful for visualizing variance across multiple variables to display patterns in correlations
Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. 
Many also incorrectly refers to heat maps as Choropleth maps – properly because of the misleading term ‘map’. But a choropleth maps include different shading or patterns within geographic boundaries to show the proportion of a variable of interest, whereas the coloration a heat map does not correspond to geographic boundaries.

Heat Map

A funnel chart is used to show streamlined data; each slice in the funnel represents a process that has filtered out data. The last funnel bears the value that is the final result of the entire procedure.
A funnel chart displays values as progressively decreasing proportions amounting to 100 percent in total. The size of the area is determined by the series value as a percentage of the total of all values. Any funnel consists of the higher part called head (or base) and the lower part referred to as neck.
Ideally, the funnel chart shows a process that starts at 100% and ends with a lower percentage where it is noticeable in what stages the fall out happens and at what rate. If the chart is also combined with research data, meaning quantified measurements of just how many items are lost at each step of the sales or order fulfillment process, then the funnel chart illustrates where the biggest bottlenecks are in the process.

Funnel Chart

A Timeline displays a list of events in chronological order. Some timelines work on a scale, while others simply display events in sequence. The main purpose is to communicate time-related information, over time, either for analysis or to visually present a story or view of history.

Timeline

In function it is identical to a normal bar chart. But visually it consists of a line anchored from the x axis and a dot at the end to mark the value.
The lollipop chart is often claimed to be useful compared to a normal bar chart, if you are dealing with a large number of values and when the values are all high, such as in the 80-90% range (out of 100%). Then a large set of tall columns can be visually aggressive.
The chart also has some less fortunate features:
The center of the circle at the end of the lollipop marks the value, but the location of the center is difficult to judge, making it imprecise compared to the straight edge of a bar, and half of the circle extends beyond the value that it represents, making it inaccurate.
Related chart types includes the dumbbell plot which focus on the span between two values, by highlighting the difference.

Lollipop Chart

A sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)

Sparkline

The Spline chart type is a Line graph that plots a fitted curve through each data point in a series. Line Charts show how a particular data changes at equal intervals of time.

Spline Graph

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Column Sparkline is basically same as the classic sparkline, except that it uses columns/bars instead of lines.

Column Sparkline

A timeline displays a list of events in chronological order. In scaled timeline, events are placed on a scale according to actual time distance between events. The main purpose is to communicate time-related information, over time, either for analysis or to visually present a story or view of history.

Scaled Timeline

Comparing the distribution of data with a theoretical distribution from an ordinary histogram can be difficult because small frequencies are dominated by the larger frequencies and it is hard to perceive the pattern of differences between the histogram bars and the curve. Therefore John Tukey introduced the Hanging Rootogram in 1971 (also called Tukey’s Hanging Rootogram) in order to solve these problems. In this visualization the comparison is made easier by ‘hanging’ the observed results from the theoretical curve, so that the discrepancies are seen by comparison with the horizontal axis rather than a sloping curve. As in the rootogram, the vertical axis is scaled to the square-root of the frequencies so as to draw attention to discrepancies in the tails of the distribution.
 
It is a variation of the concept of histograms and Pareto charts by combining observed and predicted in a simple way where the line charts display that the data is continuously changing.

Hanging Rootogram

A bubble chart is a type of chart that displays three dimensions of data. Each entity with its triplet (v1, v2, v3) of associated data is plotted as a disk that expresses two of the vi values through the disk’s xy location and the third through its size. Bubble charts can facilitate the understanding of social, economical, medical, and other scientific relationships. Bubble charts can be considered a variation of the scatter plot, in which the data points are replaced with bubbles.

Bubble Chart

It can be helpful to plot multiple datasets using a 3D form of bar chart or histogram. The multiple series 3D bar charts can be used for data sets with 3 variables (x,y, z)
Often the clarity of presentation can be reduced if the presentation is too crowded.

Multiple Series 3D Bar Charts

Stacked ordered area chart is geared towards showing rank change. Use it instead of a stacked area chart when you want to show the change of order over time. The inner categories are connected by ribbons across the columns to help you visually see how the rank changes across the columns.
A similar visualization type is the sorted stream graph

Stacked Ordered Area Chart

A Bubble timeline is a way to display a set of events or items on a timeline with a variable displayed as the the are size of the bubbles. In essence the bubble timeline is a compound data visualization, of a scaled timeline and a proportional area chart.

Bubble Timeline

A Sorted Stream Graph is area graph which is displaced around a central axis, resulting in a flowing, organic shape – but it is sorted instead of stacked.

Sorted Stream Graph

A candlestick chart is a style of bar-chart used to describe price movements of a security, derivative, or currency for a designated span of time. Each bar represents the range of price movement over a given time interval. 
It is most often used in technical analysis of equity and currency price patterns. They appear superficially similar to box plots, but are unrelated.
The dataset for a candlestick chart contains low, high, open and close values. The high and low values are visualized as the top and bottom of each stick, where the open and close values are reflected in the square inside.

Candlestick Chart

The line chart’s fraternal twin. Line charts display three or more points in time while slope charts display exactly two points in time.
Defined by Edward Tufte in his 1983 book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, this type of chart is useful for seeing (referred to the first example below):

the hierarchy of the countries in both 1970 and 1979 [the order of the countries]
the specific numbers associated with each country in each of those years [the data value next to their names]
how each country’s numbers changed over time [each country’s slope]
how each country’s rate of change compares to the other countries’ rates of change [the slopes compared with one another]
any notable deviations in the general trend (notice Britain in the above example) [aberrant slopes]

Slope Chart

The Polar Area chart is similar to a usual pie chart, except sectors are equal angles and differ rather in how far each sector extends from the center of the circle. The polar area diagram is used to plot cyclic phenomena (e.g., count of deaths by month).

Polar Area Chart

Renko charts are excellent in projecting support and resistance levels. Bricks are drawn equal in size for a known value.A brick is drawn in the direction of the prior move but only if prices move by a minimum amount.If prices change by a predetermined amount or more, a new brick is drawn.If prices change by less than a predetermined amount, the new price is ignored.

Renko chart

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Win-loss Sparkline only shows whether each value is positive or negative, whereas a Sparkline shows how high or low each value is.

Win-loss Sparkline

Layered area chart is basically multiple area charts layered by either making use of transparency or perspective. It can be used instead of a line graph with multiple graphs to compare development or trend over time.
The visualization may cause some issues in readability when overlapping.

Layered Area Chart

A stepped line graph (also called step chart) is a chart similar to a line graph, but with the line forming a series of steps between data points. A stepped line chart can be useful when you want to show the changes that occur at irregular intervals. For example, price rise in milk products, petrol, tax rate, interest rates, etc.

Stepped Line Graph

Alluvial diagrams are a type of flow diagram originally developed to represent changes in network structure over time. In allusion to both their visual appearance and their emphasis on flow, alluvial diagrams are named after alluvial fans that are naturally formed by the soil deposited from streaming water.
Variables are assigned to vertical axes that are parallel. Values are represented with blocks on each axis. The height of a block represents the size of the cluster and the height of a stream field represents the size of the components contained in both blocks connected by the stream field.
Alluvial diagram is a variant of the Parallel Sets but for categorical variables and often to display trends over time and phases.

Alluvial Diagram

Radial Area Chart is a variation of Area Chart. An area chart displays graphically quantitive data. It is based on the line chart. The area between axis and line are commonly emphasized with colors, textures and hatchings. Whereas area charts are used to represent cumulated totals using numbers or percentages over time, Radial Area Chart can be also used to display categories instead.

Radial Area Chart

Bumps charts are designed for exploring changes in rank over time.

Bump Chart

A three-dimensional scatter plot is like a scatter plot, but with g three variables.Provided that x, y, and z or f(x, y) are real numbers, the graph can be represented as dots in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. It is typically drawn on a two-dimensional page or screen using perspective methods (isometric or perspective),  so that one of the dimensions appears to be coming out of the page.

3D Scatter Plot

A fan chart is a chart that joins a line graph for observed past data, and a range area chart for future predictions.
Predictions are shown as ranges for possible values of future data together with a line showing a central estimate or most likely value for the future outcomes. As predictions become increasingly uncertain the further into the future one goes, these forecast ranges spread out, creating distinctive wedge or “fan” shapes, hence the term. Alternative forms of the chart can also include uncertainty for past data, such as preliminary data that is subject to revision.
Read more about fan charts here

Fan Chart (Time Series)

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