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Output Shape / bar

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
See also: Horizontal bar chart

Bar Chart (vertical)

A progress bar is a graphical control element used to visualize the progression of an extended operation, such as a download, file transfer, or installation. Sometimes, the graphic is accompanied by a textual representation of the progress in a percent or quantitative format.

Progress Bar

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
The horizontal bar chart is the same as a column chart or a vertical bar chart only the x-axis and y-axis are switched. Horizontal bar charts have some advantages compared to the vertical bar charts: Labels are easier to display and with a big dataset they tend to work better in a narrow layout such as mobile view.

Bar Chart (Horizontal)

Stacked Bar Chart is neither Multi-set Bar Chart nor simple Bar Chart. Stacked Bar Chart is multiple datasets on top of each other in order to show how the larger category is divided into the smaller categories and their relations to the total amount. 
Basically, they can be divided into two types:
1) Simple Stacked Bar Chart displays total value of the bar is all the segment values added together.
2) 100% Stack Bar Chart displays part to whole relationship in each group.

Stacked Bar Chart

Grouped Bar Charts are used when two or more data sets are displayed side-by-side and grouped together under categories on the same axis. Basically, it’s the most simple bar chart with two or more graphs.

Grouped Bar Chart

A dot plot or dot chart is a statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. There are two common versions of the dot chart. The first is described by Leland Wilkinson as a graph that has been used in hand-drawn (pre-computer era) graphs to depict distributions. The other version is described by William Cleveland as an alternative to the bar chart, in which dots are used to depict the quantitative values (e.g. counts) associated with categorical variables.

Dot Plot

A histogram is a chart that groups numeric data into bins, displaying the bins as segmented columns. They’re used to depict the distribution of a dataset: how often values fall into ranges. The histogram was first introduced by Karl Pearson.
To construct a histogram, the first step is to bin the range of values, and then count how many values fall into each interval. A rectangle is drawn with height proportional to the count and width equal to the bin size, so that rectangles abut each other.

Histogram

Bar chart on a map is a combination of a map with locations and a bar chart. It is useful when presenting geospatial data along values. The location could represent a city, a country or any other kind of location. Like a bar chart, the height or volume of each bar is proportional to the values it represents.

Bar Chart on a Map

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Column Sparkline is basically same as the classic sparkline, except that it uses columns/bars instead of lines.

Column Sparkline

Comparing the distribution of data with a theoretical distribution from an ordinary histogram can be difficult because small frequencies are dominated by the larger frequencies and it is hard to perceive the pattern of differences between the histogram bars and the curve. Therefore John Tukey introduced the Hanging Rootogram in 1971 (also called Tukey’s Hanging Rootogram) in order to solve these problems. In this visualization the comparison is made easier by ‘hanging’ the observed results from the theoretical curve, so that the discrepancies are seen by comparison with the horizontal axis rather than a sloping curve. As in the rootogram, the vertical axis is scaled to the square-root of the frequencies so as to draw attention to discrepancies in the tails of the distribution.
 
It is a variation of the concept of histograms and Pareto charts by combining observed and predicted in a simple way where the line charts display that the data is continuously changing.

Hanging Rootogram

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, that visualises various categories into time series. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish time in time period blocks. 
A Gantt chart is often used in project management as one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time. On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and along the top is a suitable time scale. Each activity is represented by a bar; the position and length of the bar reflects the start date, duration and end date of the activity.
It is similar to the Column Range with the difference of indicating time.

Gantt Chart

A waterfall chart helps in understanding the cumulative effect of sequentially introduced positive or negative values. The waterfall chart is also known as a flying bricks chart or Mario chart due to the apparent suspension of columns (bricks) in mid-air. Normally used for understanding how an initial value is affected by a series of intermediate positive or negative values.
Not to be confused with the likely named Waterfall Plot.

Waterfall Chart

A triangle bar chart is a variation of bar chart where triangles are used instead of rectangles. Height or volume of each triangle is proportional to the values it represents. The triangle bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally.
A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.

Triangle Bar Chart

The Column Range displays a range of data by plotting two Y values per data point. Each Y value used is drawn as the upper, and lower bounds of a column. Sometimes range charts are referred as “floating” column charts. Some data may look very nice and are easily understood in this form, in which the column floats in the chart, spanning a region from a minimum value to a maximum value.

Column Range

A Butterfly Chart (also called Tornado Chart) is a type of bar chart where two sets of data series are displayed side by side. It gives a quick glance of the difference between two groups with same parameters. It is also possible to stack/place two bars on each side (for example, ‘developed countries’ and ‘developing countries’) to give a further division of categories.
The main use of the butterfly chart is comparison of two data sets sharing the same parameters.
It has a lot of similarity with the population pyramid, but where the population pyramid is only for population data, the butterfly chart has a broader use as a comparison chart.

Butterfly Chart

It can be helpful to plot multiple datasets using a 3D form of bar chart or histogram. The multiple series 3D bar charts can be used for data sets with 3 variables (x,y, z)
Often the clarity of presentation can be reduced if the presentation is too crowded.

Multiple Series 3D Bar Charts

A Radial/Circular Bar Chart simply refers to a typical Bar Chart displayed on a polar coordinate system, instead of a cartesian system.It is used to show comparisons among categories by using a circular shape.

Radial Bar Chart

A Radial or Circular Histogram is used for displaying the circular data, which involves the wrapping of the usual histogram around a circle. Each bar in the histogram is centered at the middle of the group period with the length of the bar proportional to the frequency in the group.

Radial Histogram

A population pyramid, also called an age pyramid or age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. It is also used in ecology to determine the overall age distribution of a population; an indication of the reproductive capabilities and likelihood of the continuation of a species.

Population Pyramid

A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line. The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors.

Pareto Chart

A Bullet Graph is a variation of a Bar Graph. Seemingly inspired by the traditional thermometer charts and progress bars found in many dashboards, the bullet graph serves as a replacement for dashboard gauges and meters. Bullet graphs were developed to overcome the fundamental issues of gauges and meters: they typically display too little information, require too much space, and are cluttered with useless and distracting decoration.

Bullet Graph

A candlestick chart is a style of bar-chart used to describe price movements of a security, derivative, or currency for a designated span of time. Each bar represents the range of price movement over a given time interval. 
It is most often used in technical analysis of equity and currency price patterns. They appear superficially similar to box plots, but are unrelated.
The dataset for a candlestick chart contains low, high, open and close values. The high and low values are visualized as the top and bottom of each stick, where the open and close values are reflected in the square inside.

Candlestick Chart

The Span Chart displays a range of data by plotting two Y values per data point. Each Y value used is drawn as the upper, and lower bounds of a column/bar/cylinder. Sometimes range charts are referred as “floating” column/bar charts. Some data may look very nice and are easily understood in this form, in which the column floats in the chart, spanning a region from a minimum value to a maximum value.

Span Chart

A curved bar chart is a variation of bar chart where curved areas are used instead of rectangles. Height of each curved area is proportional to the values it represents. The curved areas can be plotted vertically or horizontally. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Curved bar charts are often seen in modern infographics, but are criticized for being confusing and inaccurate compared to a normal bar chart, as the curved area actually only has one dimension, which is the height.

Curved Bar Chart

A Mekko chart (also called marimekko chart) is a two-dimensional stacked chart. In addition to the varying segment heights of a regular stacked chart, a Mekko chart also has varying column widths. Column widths are scaled such that the total width matches the desired chart width.

Marimekko Chart

The spiral histogram also called a condegram is a histogram , but with a timeline along a spiral shape. The spiral design makes it possible to compare cycles, but keeping the continuous timeline along the spiral.

Spiral Histogram

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