Data visualization |

Target User / Business

A tag cloud is a visual representation for text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, to visualize free form text or to analyses speeches( e.g. election’s campaign). Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color. This format is useful for quickly perceiving the most prominent terms and for locating a term alphabetically to determine its relative prominence.

Word Cloud

An exploded view drawing is a diagram, picture or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts. It shows the components of an object slightly separated by distance, or suspended in surrounding space in the case of a three-dimensional exploded diagram. An object is represented as if there had been a small controlled explosion emanating from the middle of the object, causing the object’s parts to be separated an equal distance away from their original locations.

Exploded View Drawing

A heat map is a data visualization type where the individual values contained in a matrix through variations in coloring. The term “Heat map” was originally introduced by software designer Cormac Kinney in 1991 to describe a 2D display depicting real time financial market information even though similar visualizations have existed for over a century.
Heat maps are useful for visualizing variance across multiple variables to display patterns in correlations
Fractal maps and tree maps both often use a similar system of color-coding to represent the values taken by a variable in a hierarchy. The term is also used to mean its thematic application as a choropleth map. 
Many also incorrectly refers to heat maps as Choropleth maps – properly because of the misleading term ‘map’. But a choropleth maps include different shading or patterns within geographic boundaries to show the proportion of a variable of interest, whereas the coloration a heat map does not correspond to geographic boundaries.

Heat Map

A Proportional Area Chart (Square) is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales. You can also find a variant of this with circle shaped forms.

Proportional Area chart (square)

A Bubble Map Chart is simply a combination of a bubble chart data visualization and a map. It is used to visualize location and proportaion in a simple way.

Bubble Map Chart

A linear process diagram simply displays a process with start and end point on a line. It can be visualized in many shapes, designs with various of process steps.

Linear Process Diagram

A Venn diagram or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn. They are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science.

Venn Diagram

A flowchart is a type of chart that represents a process or a workflow. It shows the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

There are a wide variety of flowchart types. Some of the most common ones are swimlane flow charts, Workflow diagrams and dataflow diagrams.

Flow Chart

A sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)


Pyramid diagram are is used to arrange items or concepts in a way that shows hierarchical structure. This can include business management positions, products sold, business locations, etc. In any case, the topics must have a progressive order. A famous
If you want to show quantity and not just hierarchy the similar pyramid chart can be used.

Pyramid Diagram

An Arc Diagram uses a one-dimensional layout of nodes with circular arcs to represent connections. Nodes are placed along a single line and arcs are used to display links between the nodes. The thickness of the lines can display frequency between the nodes.
The Arc Diagram can have a similar purpose as the Chord Diagram and the Network Visualisation. But it may not be as effective to show structure in two dimensions as it serves the purpose to easy identify correlation.

Arc Diagram

A Sunburst Diagram is used to visualize hierarchical data, depicted by concentric circles. The circle in the centre represents the root node, with the hierarchy moving outward from the center. A segment of the inner circle bears a hierarchical relationship to those segments of the outer circle which lie within the angular sweep of the parent segment.
A sunburst chart without any hierarchical data (one level of categories), looks similar to a doughnut chart. However, a sunburst chart with multiple levels of categories shows how the outer rings relate to the inner rings.

Sunburst Diagram

The Matrix Diagram shows the relationship between items. At each intersection a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It can be shaped differently depending on how many groups must be compared. Six differently shaped matrices are possible: L, T, Y, X, C, R and roof-shaped.

Matrix Diagram

Multi-level Donut charts are a set of concentric circles which is used to visualize hierarchical relationships. The size of each item represents its contribution to the inner parent category. It starts with a single item that is put as a circle in the center. This is the root node. A concentric ring is set around this central circle to see the breakup of that item. The concentric ring is then segmented to show how various child items have contributed to the parent item.

Multi-level Donut Chart

Comparing the distribution of data with a theoretical distribution from an ordinary histogram can be difficult because small frequencies are dominated by the larger frequencies and it is hard to perceive the pattern of differences between the histogram bars and the curve. Therefore John Tukey introduced the Hanging Rootogram in 1971 (also called Tukey’s Hanging Rootogram) in order to solve these problems. In this visualization the comparison is made easier by ‘hanging’ the observed results from the theoretical curve, so that the discrepancies are seen by comparison with the horizontal axis rather than a sloping curve. As in the rootogram, the vertical axis is scaled to the square-root of the frequencies so as to draw attention to discrepancies in the tails of the distribution.
It is a variation of the concept of histograms and Pareto charts by combining observed and predicted in a simple way where the line charts display that the data is continuously changing.

Hanging Rootogram

A bubble chart is a type of chart that displays three dimensions of data. Each entity with its triplet (v1, v2, v3) of associated data is plotted as a disk that expresses two of the vi values through the disk’s xy location and the third through its size. Bubble charts can facilitate the understanding of social, economical, medical, and other scientific relationships. Bubble charts can be considered a variation of the scatter plot, in which the data points are replaced with bubbles.

Bubble Chart

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, that visualises various categories into time series. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish time in time period blocks. 
A Gantt chart is often used in project management as one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time. On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and along the top is a suitable time scale. Each activity is represented by a bar; the position and length of the bar reflects the start date, duration and end date of the activity.
It is similar to the Column Range with the difference of indicating time.

Gantt Chart

Stacked Area Chart is similar to the simple Area Chart, but here is uses multiple data series that start each point from the point left by the previous series. It is useful for comparing multiple variables changing over interval.

Stacked Area Chart

A Layered Proportional Area Chart is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales. You can also find a variant of this with circle shaped forms.

Nested Proportional Area Chart

A waterfall chart helps in understanding the cumulative effect of sequentially introduced positive or negative values. The waterfall chart is also known as a flying bricks chart or Mario chart due to the apparent suspension of columns (bricks) in mid-air. Normally used for understanding how an initial value is affected by a series of intermediate positive or negative values.
Not to be confused with the likely named Waterfall Plot.

Waterfall Chart

A Cycle Diagram is simply used to show how a series of events interact repeatedly through a cycle. It normally refers to a repetitive flow of actions/steps which doesn’t really have a start and/or a proper end.

Cycle Diagram

The multi-level pie chart is a special type of chart that allows you to show symmetrical/asymmetrical tree structures in a consolidated pie-like structure.
Though similar, the multilevel piechart should not be confused with the multi-level donut chart, as it contains no connected hierarchy and tree structure, but only displays independant donut rings for comparison.

Multi-level Pie Chart

Connection Map is used to display network combined with geographical data. It can be used for visualising flight connections, flow of import/export or migration, any kind of connections between different locations. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines or adding another type of visualisation (for example, bar chart or dot plot), you can add numeric values to Connection Map. It is related to a Flow Map but display no quantitative values between the connections.

Connection Map

Treemaps display hierarchical (tree-structured) data as a set of nested rectangles. Each branch of the tree is given a rectangle, which is then tiled with smaller rectangles representing sub-branches. A leaf node’s rectangle has an area proportional to a specified dimension on the data. Often the leaf nodes are colored to show a separate dimension of the data.


A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is commonly used in business plan arrangement and / or in companies start-up to testify the strenght of a project or a potential business.

SWOT Analysis

The Column Range displays a range of data by plotting two Y values per data point. Each Y value used is drawn as the upper, and lower bounds of a column. Sometimes range charts are referred as “floating” column charts. Some data may look very nice and are easily understood in this form, in which the column floats in the chart, spanning a region from a minimum value to a maximum value.

Column Range

A Butterfly Chart (also called Tornado Chart) is a type of bar chart where two sets of data series are displayed side by side. It gives a quick glance of the difference between two groups with same parameters. It is also possible to stack/place two bars on each side (for example, ‘developed countries’ and ‘developing countries’) to give a further division of categories.
The main use of the butterfly chart is comparison of two data sets sharing the same parameters.
It has a lot of similarity with the population pyramid, but where the population pyramid is only for population data, the butterfly chart has a broader use as a comparison chart.

Butterfly Chart

A dot density map is a map type that uses a dot or another symbol to show the presence of a feature or phenomenon.
In a dot density map, areas with many dots indicate high concentrations of values for the chosen field and fewer dots indicate lower concentrations.
Each dot on a dot-density map can either represent one single recording of a phenomenon (one-to-one) or represent a given quantity of it (one-to-many).

Dot Density Map

It can be helpful to plot multiple datasets using a 3D form of bar chart or histogram. The multiple series 3D bar charts can be used for data sets with 3 variables (x,y, z)
Often the clarity of presentation can be reduced if the presentation is too crowded.

Multiple Series 3D Bar Charts

The opposite diagram can be used to display two set of opposites in a horizontal and vertical axis using Cartesian coordinates.
The data or items are displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of two variables determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. In many ways it is similar to the scatter plot.
The values can be data driven, but it is often used for conceptual purposes by displaying opposites of an issue on a relative scale.

Opposite Diagram

Stacked ordered area chart is geared towards showing rank change. Use it instead of a stacked area chart when you want to show the change of order over time. The inner categories are connected by ribbons across the columns to help you visually see how the rank changes across the columns.
A similar visualization type is the sorted stream graph

Stacked Ordered Area Chart

A Radial/Circular Bar Chart simply refers to a typical Bar Chart displayed on a polar coordinate system, instead of a cartesian system.It is used to show comparisons among categories by using a circular shape.

Radial Bar Chart

A Radial or Circular Histogram is used for displaying the circular data, which involves the wrapping of the usual histogram around a circle. Each bar in the histogram is centered at the middle of the group period with the length of the bar proportional to the frequency in the group.

Radial Histogram

Fishbone Diagrams are causal diagrams that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Fishbone Diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.

Fishbone Diagram

A Roof Shaped Matrix Diagram is one of six forms of Matrix Diagram. A Matrix Diagram shows the relationship between items. At each intersection, a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It can be shaped differently depending on how many groups must be compared. The other five differently shaped matrixes are: L, T, Y, X, C and R.

Matrix Diagram (Roof Shaped)

A hyperbolic tree defines a graph drawing method inspired by hyperbolic geometry.

Displaying hierarchical data as a tree suffers from visual clutter as the number of nodes per level can grow exponentially. For a simple binary tree, the maximum number of nodes at a level n is 2n, while the number of nodes for larger trees grows much more quickly. 
Drawing the tree as a node-link diagram thus requires exponential amounts of space to be displayed.

Hyperbolic Tree

The hive plot is a rational visualization method for drawing networks. Nodes are mapped to and positioned on radially distributed linear axes — this mapping is based on network structural properties. Edges are drawn as curved links. Simple and interpretable.
The purpose of the hive plot is to establish a new baseline for visualization of large networks — a method that is both general and tunable and useful as a starting point in visually exploring network structure.

Hive Plot

Circle Packing is a method to visualize large amounts of hierarchically structured data. Tangent circles represent brother nodes at the same level; to visualize the hierarchy, all children of a node are packed into that node (and thus determine its size). The size of a leaf-node can represent an arbitrary property, such as file size. An advantage of this algorithm is the good overview of large data sets and the clear representation of groupings and structural relationships.

Packed Circle Chart

A population pyramid, also called an age pyramid or age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. It is also used in ecology to determine the overall age distribution of a population; an indication of the reproductive capabilities and likelihood of the continuation of a species.

Population Pyramid

A Sociogram is a graphic representation of social links that a person has. It is a graph drawing that plots the structure of interpersonal relations in a group situation. A sociogram can be drawn on the basis of many different criteria: Social relations, channels of influence, lines of communication etc.


An Euler Diagram is a diagrammatic means of representing sets and their relationships. They are closely related to Venn diagrams. Euler Diagrams consist of simple closed curves (usually circles) in the plane that depict sets. The sizes or shapes of the curves are not important: the significance of the diagram is in how they overlap. The spatial relationships between the regions bounded by each curve (overlap, containment or neither) corresponds to set-theoretic relationships (intersection, subset and disjointness).

Euler Diagram

A candlestick chart is a style of bar-chart used to describe price movements of a security, derivative, or currency for a designated span of time. Each bar represents the range of price movement over a given time interval. 
It is most often used in technical analysis of equity and currency price patterns. They appear superficially similar to box plots, but are unrelated.
The dataset for a candlestick chart contains low, high, open and close values. The high and low values are visualized as the top and bottom of each stick, where the open and close values are reflected in the square inside.

Candlestick Chart

A Target Diagram displays progress towards a goal. Each layer moves closer towards the centre result. It reminds a bit like a flow chart which moves from the outside to the centre. Each layer can also be divided into subcategories.

Target Diagram

The Span Chart displays a range of data by plotting two Y values per data point. Each Y value used is drawn as the upper, and lower bounds of a column/bar/cylinder. Sometimes range charts are referred as “floating” column/bar charts. Some data may look very nice and are easily understood in this form, in which the column floats in the chart, spanning a region from a minimum value to a maximum value.

Span Chart

A dendrogram is a tree diagram frequently used to illustrate the arrangement of the clusters produced by hierarchical clustering. Dendrograms are often used in computational biology to illustrate the clustering of genes or samples, sometimes on top of heatmaps.


The line chart’s fraternal twin. Line charts display three or more points in time while slope charts display exactly two points in time.
Defined by Edward Tufte in his 1983 book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, this type of chart is useful for seeing (referred to the first example below):

the hierarchy of the countries in both 1970 and 1979 [the order of the countries]
the specific numbers associated with each country in each of those years [the data value next to their names]
how each country’s numbers changed over time [each country’s slope]
how each country’s rate of change compares to the other countries’ rates of change [the slopes compared with one another]
any notable deviations in the general trend (notice Britain in the above example) [aberrant slopes]

Slope Chart

A curved bar chart is a variation of bar chart where curved areas are used instead of rectangles. Height of each curved area is proportional to the values it represents. The curved areas can be plotted vertically or horizontally. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Curved bar charts are often seen in modern infographics, but are criticized for being confusing and inaccurate compared to a normal bar chart, as the curved area actually only has one dimension, which is the height.

Curved Bar Chart

Sankey diagrams are a specific type of flow diagram, in which the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity. They are typically used to visualize energy or material or cost transfers between processes. They can also visualize the energy accounts or material flow accounts on a community level. Sankey diagrams put a visual emphasis on the major transfers or flows within a system. They are helpful in locating dominant contributions to an overall flow.

Sankey Diagram

A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions at which thermodynamically distinct phases can occur at equilibrium. Common components of a phase diagram are lines of equilibrium or phase boundaries, which refer to lines that mark conditions under which multiple phases can coexist at equilibrium. Phase transitions occur along lines of equilibrium.

Phase Diagram

Renko charts are excellent in projecting support and resistance levels. Bricks are drawn equal in size for a known value.A brick is drawn in the direction of the prior move but only if prices move by a minimum amount.If prices change by a predetermined amount or more, a new brick is drawn.If prices change by less than a predetermined amount, the new price is ignored.

Renko chart

A spiral heat map is a specific type of heat map designed for continuous comparable cycles like years or days. The spiral design makes it possible to compare the cycles, but keeping the continuous timeline along the spiral.

Spiral Heat Map

Network Visualisation (also called Network Graph) is often used to visualise complex relationships between a huge amount of elements. A network visualisation displays undirected and directed graph structures. This type of visualization illuminates relationships between entities. Entities are displayed as round nodes and lines show the relationships between them. The vivid display of network nodes can highlight non-trivial data discrepancies that may be otherwise be overlooked.

Network Visualisation

Layered area chart is basically multiple area charts layered by either making use of transparency or perspective. It can be used instead of a line graph with multiple graphs to compare development or trend over time.
The visualization may cause some issues in readability when overlapping.

Layered Area Chart

Alluvial diagrams are a type of flow diagram originally developed to represent changes in network structure over time. In allusion to both their visual appearance and their emphasis on flow, alluvial diagrams are named after alluvial fans that are naturally formed by the soil deposited from streaming water.
Variables are assigned to vertical axes that are parallel. Values are represented with blocks on each axis. The height of a block represents the size of the cluster and the height of a stream field represents the size of the components contained in both blocks connected by the stream field.
Alluvial diagram is a variant of the Parallel Sets but for categorical variables and often to display trends over time and phases.

Alluvial Diagram

A swimlane flow chart is a type of flowchart. It documents the steps or activities across boarder and show which step and activity belongs to whom throughout processes; that’s why it’s also called a cross-functional-diagram or a cross-channel-diagram. What a swimlane flow chart makes special and unique is that the elements within the flowchart are placed and match together in lanes, and you can plan, coordinate when and how a channel is required. These lanes can help identify and visualize stages, departments, or any other set of separated categories. And furthermore it work out who is in charge, who (employees, responsible people, stakeholders and areas) is responsible, who has to deliver or what can we do in which step or by which communication channel and the instant and situations in the process at which they are and how they are involved.

Swimlane Flow Chart

Bumps charts are designed for exploring changes in rank over time.

Bump Chart

Y-Matrix is one of six forms of Matrix Diagram. A Matrix Diagram shows the relationship between items. At each intersection a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It can be shaped differently depending on how many groups must be compared. The other five differently shaped matrices are: L, T, X, C, R and roof-shaped.

Matrix Diagram (Y-Shaped)

A Non-ribbon Chord Diagram is a stripped-down version of a Chord Diagram, with only the connection lines showing. This provides more emphasis on the connections within the data. A chord diagram is a graphical method of displaying the inter-relationships between data in a matrix. The data is arranged radially around a circle with the relationships between the points.

Non-ribbon Chord Diagram

Kagi charts look similar to swing charts and do not have a time axis. A Kagi chart is created with a series of vertical lines connected by short horizontal lines. The Kagi chart is a chart used for tracking price movements and to make decisions on purchasing stock. It differs from traditional stock charts, such as the Candlestick chart by being mostly independent of time. This feature aids in producing a chart that reduces random noise.

Kagi Chart

The spiral histogram also called a condegram is a histogram , but with a timeline along a spiral shape. The spiral design makes it possible to compare cycles, but keeping the continuous timeline along the spiral.

Spiral Histogram