Data visualization | vis.zone

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A donut chart (also spelled doughnut) is functionally identical to a pie chart, with the exception of a blank center and the ability to support multiple statistics at once. Doughnut charts provide a better data intensity ratio to standard pie charts since the blank center can be used to display additional, related data.

Donut Chart

A line chart or line graph is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points called ‘markers’ connected by straight line segments.
It is similar to a scatter plot except that the measurement points are ordered (typically by their x-axis value) and joined with straight line segments. Line Charts show how a particular data changes at equal intervals of time.
A line chart is similar to the spline graph, but the spline graph draws a curved line between the points instead of the straight lines.

Line Graph

Pictorial fraction chart is a very simple way of displaying data, but it is also widely used. Good use of it includes creativity, illustrations, typography, etc.

Pictorial fraction chart

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
See also: Horizontal bar chart

Bar Chart (vertical)

A progress bar is a graphical control element used to visualize the progression of an extended operation, such as a download, file transfer, or installation. Sometimes, the graphic is accompanied by a textual representation of the progress in a percent or quantitative format.

Progress Bar

A Choropleth Map is a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income. The choropleth map provides an easy way to visualize how a measurement varies across a geographic area or it shows the level of variability within a region.

Choropleth Map

A chart type that is using pictograms (icons, pictures, illustrations, etc.) to show fractions – e.g. one in five people eat five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day. It is a very illustrative data visualization and has become quite popular in modern infographics for simple facts.
A related visualization is the Pictorial Fraction Chart that visualize percentages.

Fraction of pictograms

A pie chart is divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are variations on the way it can be presented.

Pie Chart

A radar chart is a graphical method of displaying multivariate data in the form of a two-dimensional chart of three or more quantitative variables represented on axes starting from the same point. The relative position and angle of the axes is typically uninformative.

Radar Diagram

Angular Gauge uses a radial scale to display a specific data point using a dial over a radial scale with defined limits. Colors can be associated for the sections of the data to indicate categories for values.
Angular gauges can be used for many purposes like speed, satisfaction, volume, temperature, etc. But most common use is from car dashboard for fuel, speed, etc. also known as speedometer.

Angular Gauge

A table chart is a means of arranging data in rows and columns. The use of tables is pervasive throughout all communication, research and data analysis. Tables appear in print media, handwritten notes, computer software, architectural ornamentation, traffic signs and many other places. The precise conventions and terminology for describing tables varies depending on the context.

Table Chart

The Angular Index Gauge is quite similar to the Angular Gauge, but it doesn’t necessary display specific data/number. But this is very useful for indication of index of whether something is good/bad, high/low, above average, etc.

Solid Gauge Chart

An Area Chart or area graph are basically a line graph with the area below the lined filled with colors or textures. Like line graphs area charts are  used to represent the development of quantitative values over a time period. It can also be used to compare two or more categories and is similar to the Stacked Area Chart.
Area charts often used to show overall trends over time rather than specific values.

Area Chart

A Comparison chart contains horizontal rows and vertical columns in order to compare attributes, characteristics, numbers, values, volume, etc. It is normally visualized as a data raw chart sometimes similar to spreadsheets structure.

Comparison Chart

A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.  One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.
Bar charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data. Categorical data is a grouping of data into discrete groups, such as months of the year, age group, shoe sizes, and animals. These categories are usually qualitative. Bars on the chart may be arranged in any order.
The horizontal bar chart is the same as a column chart or a vertical bar chart only the x-axis and y-axis are switched. Horizontal bar charts have some advantages compared to the vertical bar charts: Labels are easier to display and with a big dataset they tend to work better in a narrow layout such as mobile view.

Bar Chart (Horizontal)

A compound data vizulisation type, combining a scaled timeline with an area chart, a line graph or similar to show the development. It is useful to explain big changes in the development with events or causes. The events are typically visualized with labels anchored to the timeline.

Development & Causes

An number  is often used in infographics to emphasize a single data. A simple icon or an illustration mostly comes along in order to describe what it is about and to help understand the following text.

Icon + number

A Proportional Area Chart (Icon) is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales.
Similar data visualizations includes proportional area charts, displayed as circles or a squares.

Proportional Area Chart (Icon)

Icon Count

Pictorial bar chart is a visual representation of a bar chart used by designers in infographic. Icons or illustrations  are used instead of bars by either stretching or scaling the length of the object.

Pictorial bar chart

Scaled-up Number is not exactly a data visualization. But it’s very used technique in infographics and reports to highlight a single value. Often used when the number does not need a context or a comparison.

Scaled-up Number

A Pictorial Stacked Chart is similar to the Stacked Bar Chart, but the bar is replaced by a pictogram in order to represent the percentage stacked in pictogram.

Pictorial Stacked Chart

Stacked Bar Chart is neither Multi-set Bar Chart nor simple Bar Chart. Stacked Bar Chart is multiple datasets on top of each other in order to show how the larger category is divided into the smaller categories and their relations to the total amount. 
Basically, they can be divided into two types:
1) Simple Stacked Bar Chart displays total value of the bar is all the segment values added together.
2) 100% Stack Bar Chart displays part to whole relationship in each group.

Stacked Bar Chart

A Proportional Area Chart (Circle) is used for comparing proportions (size, quantities, etc.) to provide a quick overview of the relative size of data without the use of scales. You can also find a variant of this with square shaped forms.

Proportional Area Chart (Circle)

A funnel chart is used to show streamlined data; each slice in the funnel represents a process that has filtered out data. The last funnel bears the value that is the final result of the entire procedure.
A funnel chart displays values as progressively decreasing proportions amounting to 100 percent in total. The size of the area is determined by the series value as a percentage of the total of all values. Any funnel consists of the higher part called head (or base) and the lower part referred to as neck.
Ideally, the funnel chart shows a process that starts at 100% and ends with a lower percentage where it is noticeable in what stages the fall out happens and at what rate. If the chart is also combined with research data, meaning quantified measurements of just how many items are lost at each step of the sales or order fulfillment process, then the funnel chart illustrates where the biggest bottlenecks are in the process.

Funnel Chart

Grouped Bar Charts are used when two or more data sets are displayed side-by-side and grouped together under categories on the same axis. Basically, it’s the most simple bar chart with two or more graphs.

Grouped Bar Chart

Visual presentation of data using icons, pictures, symbols, etc., in place of or in addition to common graph elements (bars, lines, points). Pictographs use relative sizes or repetitions of the same icon, picture, or symbol to show comparison.

Pictorial Unit Chart

A Timeline displays a list of events in chronological order. Some timelines work on a scale, while others simply display events in sequence. The main purpose is to communicate time-related information, over time, either for analysis or to visually present a story or view of history.

Timeline

Semi Circle Donut Chart is simply a Donut Chart cut in half. The elements are still divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion like a basic pie or donut chart.

Semi Circle Donut Chart

Pin maps are used to display geospatial data on a map. The basic use is to pin locations and give them labels/descriptions. It can be combined with proportional icon area chart to illustrate numeric values, shades of colours to display degrees, or icons to present different groups.

Pin Map

In function it is identical to a normal bar chart. But visually it consists of a line anchored from the x axis and a dot at the end to mark the value.
The lollipop chart is often claimed to be useful compared to a normal bar chart, if you are dealing with a large number of values and when the values are all high, such as in the 80-90% range (out of 100%). Then a large set of tall columns can be visually aggressive.
The chart also has some less fortunate features:
The center of the circle at the end of the lollipop marks the value, but the location of the center is difficult to judge, making it imprecise compared to the straight edge of a bar, and half of the circle extends beyond the value that it represents, making it inaccurate.
Related chart types includes the dumbbell plot which focus on the span between two values, by highlighting the difference.

Lollipop Chart

The Spline chart type is a Line graph that plots a fitted curve through each data point in a series. Line Charts show how a particular data changes at equal intervals of time.

Spline Graph

Bar chart on a map is a combination of a map with locations and a bar chart. It is useful when presenting geospatial data along values. The location could represent a city, a country or any other kind of location. Like a bar chart, the height or volume of each bar is proportional to the values it represents.

Bar Chart on a Map

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Column Sparkline is basically same as the classic sparkline, except that it uses columns/bars instead of lines.

Column Sparkline

A waffle chart shows progress towards a target or a completion percentage. There is a grid of small cells, of which coloured cells represent the data.
A chart can consist of one category or several categories. Multiple waffle charts can be put together to show a comparison between different charts.

Waffle Chart

A timeline displays a list of events in chronological order. In scaled timeline, events are placed on a scale according to actual time distance between events. The main purpose is to communicate time-related information, over time, either for analysis or to visually present a story or view of history.

Scaled Timeline

llustration Diagrams are illustrative graphics or images accompanied by notes, labels or a legend. Illustration Diagrams can explain concepts, methods or show how things work, move or change.
The style and anatomy of an Illustration Diagram may vary a lot depending on content, context and and best practices in different industries.

Illustration Diagram

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organise information. A mind map is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

Mind Map

A transit map is a topological map in the form of a schematic diagram used to illustrate the routes and stations within a public transport system—whether this be bus lines, tramways, rapid transit, commuter rail or ferry routes. The main components are color coded lines to indicate each line or service, with named icons to indicate stations or stops.

Transit Map

A pyramid chart is an inverted funnel chart. Similar to a funnel chart, the pyramid chart is a single series chart which does not use an axis. It represents data as portions of a 100% (the individual segments add up to represent a whole).

Pyramid Chart

A step by step illustration is a series of illustration to explain a process or a sequential incident. It can be used for a wide range of purposes;  ie.  assembly guides, instructional manuals for cooking or an airplane safety manual.
The sequence of illustrations is always chronological and often numbered. The visuals can both be photos, technical drawings or more illustrative.

Step by Step Illustration

A triangle bar chart is a variation of bar chart where triangles are used instead of rectangles. Height or volume of each triangle is proportional to the values it represents. The triangle bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally.
A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.

Triangle Bar Chart

An organisational chart is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. The term is also used for similar diagrams, for example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a group of languages.

Organisational Chart

A process diagram simply displays a process with start and end point. It can be visualized in many shapes, designs with various of process steps.

Process Diagram

A Proportional Area Chart (Half Circle) is a variation of Proportional Area Chart (Circle), where one measure is represented as a circle. Representing two data sets in one circle (half circle each), this visualisation is useful for comparing two data sets (I,II in the input type) within one category and as well between different categories (A,B,C in the input type). Two data sets are often two different years or two contrary concepts (A/A’, male/female, etc.) It is also possible to use it for only one category (one circle).

Proportional Area Chart (Half Circle)

A Tally Chart can both be referred to as a recording and graphically tool for showing the frequency of the data by using the tally mark numeral system.

Tally Chart

A Sparkline is a small intense, simple, word-sized graphic with typographic resolution. Sparklines mean that graphics are no longer cartoonish special occasions with captions and boxes, but rather sparkline graphics can be everywhere a word or number can be: embedded in a sentence, table, headline, map, spreadsheet, graphic. Data graphics should have the resolution of typography. (Edward Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, 46-63.)
A Win-loss Sparkline only shows whether each value is positive or negative, whereas a Sparkline shows how high or low each value is.

Win-loss Sparkline

Route Map is used to displace a series of geographical data with a start point and an end point. It is useful to show directions from start point to destination or to visualise traces of a run or a trip. It can be placed on an actual map or used solely. By combining thickness, colour, or pattern to the lines, you can add categories to Route Map. It is also possible to combine with time, icons or other values to the points.

Route Map

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